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October 20, 2014 

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ACCOUNTING COST: The actual outlays or expenses incurred in production that shows up a firm's accounting statements or records. Accounting costs, while very important to accountants, company CEOs, shareholders, and the Internal Revenue Service, is only minimally important to economists. The reason is that economists are primarily interested in economic cost (also called opportunity cost). That fact is that accounting costs and economic costs aren't always the same. An opportunity or economic cost is the value of foregone production. Some economic costs, actually a lot of economic opportunity costs, never show up as accounting costs. Moreover, some accounting costs, while legal, bonified payments by a firm, are not associated with any sort of opportunity cost.

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SUPER MAJORITY RULE: A voting rule in which decisions are made based on a specified fraction of votes greater than 50 percent and less than 100 percent. For example, a super majority of two-thirds is required for Congress to override a legislative veto by the President. A growing number of state and local governments require a super majority approval, usually in the range of 60 to 75 percent, for an increase in taxes. This is one of several voting rules. Others include majority, unanimity, and plurality.

     See also | public choice | majority rule | unanimity rule | plurality rule | voter paradox | principle of the median voter | logrolling | explicit logrolling | implicit logrolling | Tiebout hypothesis | principal-agent problem |


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CHANGE IN REAL PRODUCTION

The movement along the short-run or long-run aggregate supply curve caused by a change in the price level. A change in real production is caused ONLY by a change in the price level. This is one of two changes related to aggregate supply. The other is a change in aggregate supply. A change in real production is comparable to a change in quantity supplied. A change in real production for short-run aggregate supply means real production changes with a movement along a given short-run aggregate supply curve. However, the term "change in real production" is also used for movements along a given long-run aggregate supply curve, even though real production does not actually change in the long run.

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APLS

State of the ECONOMY

U.S. Exports
July 2014
$198.0 billion
Up 0.9% from June 2014: Econ. Stat. Admin.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time searching for a specialty store hoping to buy either a birthday gift for your grandfather or a pleather CD case. Be on the lookout for poorly written technical manuals.
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