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December 6, 2022 

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INSTITUTION: An established method or way of doing something that's widely accepted throughout society. Common institutions include marriage, markets, high school football in the fall, government, and Christmas gift-giving. Institutions provide the rules and guidelines needed to carry out the day-to-day activities of our lives. Institutions provide the crucial structure of a society and the framework within which economic activity takes place. Without institution structure, anarchy would prevail. With the rules, though, come rigidities that can prevent resources from being allocated efficiently.

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UNANIMITY RULE: A voting rule in which decisions are made based on unanimous approval of those casting votes. That is, every voter must cast the same vote. Unanimity is used in elections where there is no room for doubt or disagreement. The most common example is court cases where a jury must vote unanimously for conviction or acquittal. Private clubs also employ unanimity vote when admitting new members. This is one of several voting rules. Others include majority, super majority, and plurality.

     See also | public choice | majority rule | super majority rule | plurality rule | voter paradox | principle of the median voter | logrolling | explicit logrolling | implicit logrolling | Tiebout hypothesis | principal-agent problem |


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SAY'S LAW

A principle of classical economics developed the French economist Jean-Baptiste Say that is commonly summarized as "supply creates its own demand." This law, also referred to as Say's "theory of markets" or "law of markets," indicates that the act of producing aggregate output generates a sufficient amount of aggregate income to purchase all of the output produced. This principle indicated that excess production or insufficient demand for production was unlikely to occur, at least for any extended period. When combined with flexible prices and saving-investment equality, Say's law further implied that an economy would achieve and maintain full employment of resources. This law was singled out by John Maynard Keynes in his critique of classical economics, but remains relevant in current macroeconomic analysis, reflected in the circular flow model.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time strolling around a discount warehouse buying club looking to buy either one of those "hang in there" kitty cat posters or a velvet painting of Elvis Presley. Be on the lookout for telephone calls from long-lost relatives.
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The 1909 Lincoln penny was the first U.S. coin with the likeness of a U.S. President.
"Every man must decide whether he will walk in the light of creative altruism or in the darkness of destructive selfishness."

-- Martin Luther King, Jr., clergyman

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