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August 18, 2017 

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SLOPE, SHORT-RUN AGGREGATE SUPPLY CURVE: The short-run aggregate supply (SRAS) curve has a positive slope, reflecting the direct relation between the price level and aggregate real production. A higher price level is related to more real production and a lower price level is related to less real production. The general reason is similar to that of market supply curves--the opportunity cost of production--three specific reasons can be identified: (1) inflexible resource prices that often makes it easier to reduce aggregate real production and resource employment when the price level falls; (2) the pool of natural unemployment, consisting of frictional and structural unemployment, that can be used temporarily to increase aggregate real production when the price level rises; and (3) imbalances in the purchasing power of resource prices that can temporarily entice resource owners to produce more or less aggregate real production than the would at full employment.

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PLURALITY RULE: A voting rule in which decisions are made based on a plurality of the votes cast. A plurality is defined as the most votes obtained when more than two candidates or options exist, but none receives a majority. If, for example, two of three candidates running for office receive 33 percent of the vote, then the third candidate with 34 percent receives the plurality. Presidential primary elections, which can have up to a dozen candidates, are commonly won with a plurality of the votes. This is one of several voting rules. Others include majority, super majority, and unanimity.

     See also | public choice | majority rule | super majority rule | unanimity rule | voter paradox | principle of the median voter | logrolling | explicit logrolling | implicit logrolling | Tiebout hypothesis | principal-agent problem |


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UNEMPLOYMENT RATE, MEASUREMENT PROBLEMS

The official unemployment rate, which measures the proportion of the civilian labor force 16 years or older that is not engaged in productive activities but is actively seeking employment, might be either overstated or understated due to discouraged workers, part-time workers, and unreported legal or illegal employment. Taken together, these measurement problems suggest that the official unemployment rate is likely understated during business-cycle contraction and overstated during business-cycle expansions.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time searching for a specialty store looking to buy either a flower arrangement in a coffee cup for your father or a how-to book on meeting people. Be on the lookout for small children selling products door-to-door.
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Helping spur the U.S. industrial revolution, Thomas Edison patented nearly 1300 inventions, 300 of which came out of his Menlo Park "invention factory" during a four-year period.
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