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May 5, 2016 

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MARGINAL COST CURVE: A curve that graphically represents the relation between marginal cost incurred by a firm in the short-run product of a good or service and the quantity of output produced. This curve is constructed to capture the relation between marginal cost and the level of output, holding other variables, like technology and resource prices, constant. The marginal cost curve is U-shaped. Marginal cost is relatively high at small quantities of output, then as production increases, declines, reaches a minimum value, then rises. This shape of the marginal cost curve is directly attributable to increasing, then decreasing marginal returns (and the law of diminishing marginal returns).

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PLURALITY RULE: A voting rule in which decisions are made based on a plurality of the votes cast. A plurality is defined as the most votes obtained when more than two candidates or options exist, but none receives a majority. If, for example, two of three candidates running for office receive 33 percent of the vote, then the third candidate with 34 percent receives the plurality. Presidential primary elections, which can have up to a dozen candidates, are commonly won with a plurality of the votes. This is one of several voting rules. Others include majority, super majority, and unanimity.

     See also | public choice | majority rule | super majority rule | unanimity rule | voter paradox | principle of the median voter | logrolling | explicit logrolling | implicit logrolling | Tiebout hypothesis | principal-agent problem |


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MARKET ADJUSTMENT

The economic analysis of changes in market equilibrium caused by changes in any of the five demand determinants and/or the five supply determinants. Market adjustment comes in one of eight varieties, given that the two curves comprising the market (demand curve and supply curve) can either increase or decrease, individually or simultaneously. Four adjustments involve a shift of EITHER the demand curve OR the supply curve. The other four adjustments involve shifts of BOTH the demand curve AND the supply curve.

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APLS

State of the ECONOMY

U 3 Unemployment
November 2015
5.0% No Change
Bureau of Labor Statistics

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time looking for the new strip mall out on the highway looking to buy either a package of blank rewritable CDs or yellow cotton balls. Be on the lookout for malfunctioning pocket calculators.
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The portion of aggregate output U.S. citizens pay in taxes (30%) is less than the other six leading industrialized nations -- Britain, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, or Japan.
"Each of us is issued but one life, and we know full well how it all ends. It would be regrettable to squander this one chance on someone else's appearance, someone else's experience. "

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