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April 23, 2018 

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HORIZONTAL ADDITION: In graphical analysis, the technique of combining two curves by adding the value of the variable on the horizontal or X axis for a given value of the variable on the vertical or Y axis. This is commonly done when deriving a market demand curve from a set of individual demand curves. The quantity demanded by every individual is added at a given price to identify the total market demand at that price.

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PAR VALUE: The stated, or face, value of a legal claim or financial asset. For debt securities, such as corporate bonds or U. S. Treasury securities, this is amount to be repaid at the time of maturity. For equity securities, that is, corporate stocks, this is the initial value set up at the time it is issued. Par value, also called face value, is not necessarily, and often is not, equal to the current market price of the asset. A $10,000 U.S. Treasury note, for example, has a par value of $10,000, but might have a current market price of $9,950. The difference between par value and current price contributes to the yield or return on such assets. An asset is selling at a discount if the current price is less than the par value and is selling at a premium if the current price is more than the par value.

     See also | legal claim | financial asset | corporate bond | Treasury security | corporate stock | maturity | yield | discount | premium | yield to maturity | coupon rate | current yield | present value |


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LOGROLLING

The trading of votes to ensure a favorable outcome for two or more separate decisions. Logrolling occurs when each of two people agree to vote for the other's project to ensure that both are passed. A votes for B and B votes for A. Logrolling is commonly used when neither decision is able to obtain the necessary majority of the votes needed for passage on their own accord. Explicit logrolling is when each of two voters agree to cast separate votes for two separate programs. Implicit logrolling is when two separate programs or policies are combined into a single package, which is then subject to a single vote. Logrolling can generate either an efficient or an inefficient allocation of resources, meaning that efficiency is irrelevant to the logrolling process.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time visiting every yard sale in a 30-mile radius hoping to buy either a large, stuffed giraffe or a birthday greeting card for your aunt. Be on the lookout for telephone calls from long-lost relatives.
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