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August 9, 2022 

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AD VALOREM TARIFF: A tax on imports that is specified as a percentage of the value of the good or service being taxed. This is one form of trade barrier that's intended to restrict imports into a country. Unlike nontariff barriers and quotas, which increase prices and thus revenue received by domestic producers, an 'ad valorem tariff' generates revenue for the government. For example: a 15 percent ad valorem tariff on a TV set worth $100 would pay a tariff of $15. One advantage of an ad valorem tariff is that it keeps up with changes in prices (mostly inflation).

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POTENTIAL GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT: The total output that the economy could produce if resources were at full employment. If the economy is at full employment (a 5 percent unemployment rate) then actual gross domestic product is equal to potential gross domestic product. Of course, if the unemployment rate is greater than 5 percent, then actual production is less potential production. By calculating potential gross domestic product, we can figure out exactly how far below this potential we are. This information then can be used by the pointy-headed government economists to recommend appropriate monetary or fiscal policies.

     See also | gross domestic product | full employment | unemployment rate | monetary policy | fiscal policy | full-employment budget | long-run aggregate supply | natural unemployment |


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LAW OF DEMAND

The inverse relationship between demand price and the quantity demanded, assuming ceteris paribus factors are held constant. This fundamental economic principle indicates that a decrease the price of a commodity results in an increase in the quantity of the commodity that buyers are willing and able to purchase in a given period of time, if other factors are held constant. The law of demand is one of the most important principles found in the study of economics.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time strolling around a discount warehouse buying club trying to buy either a birthday gift for your uncle or a pair of red and purple designer socks. Be on the lookout for the last item on a shelf.
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