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February 23, 2020 

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TAX INCIDENCE: The ultimate payment of a tax. Many taxes are initially paid by one person, but passed along through production and consumption activities until it finally reaches someone else. An obvious example is the sales tax. While officially paid by the retail store (they write the check to the government), it's tacked on to the prices paid by consumers. Consumers, thus, bear the lion's share of most sales taxes. The incidence of other taxes is not quite so obvious. Some taxes are paid by producers early in production such as severance taxes on oil extraction without the knowledge of consumers, who end up paying through higher prices. As a general rule taxes are passed through the system until they reach someone (usually consumers) who can pass it no further.

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SCARCE RESOURCE: A resource with an available quantity less than its desired use. Scarce resources are also called factors of production. Scarce goods are also termed economic goods. Scarce resources are used to produce scarce goods. Like the more general society-wide condition of scarcity, a given resource is scarce because it has a limited availability in combination with a greater (potentially unlimited) productive use. It's both of these that make it scarce. In other words, even though an item is quite limited it will not be a scarce resource if it has few if any uses (think pocket lint and free good).

     See also | scarcity | goods | services | factors of production | resources | market | exchange | price | opportunity cost | scarce good | free good | free resource |


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SCARCE RESOURCE, AmosWEB GLOSS*arama, http://www.AmosWEB.com, AmosWEB LLC, 2000-2020. [Accessed: February 23, 2020].


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SLOPE, SAVING LINE

The positive slope of the saving line is also termed the marginal propensity to save (MPS). This slope is greater than zero but less than one, reflecting induced saving and the Keynesian psychological law of consumer behavior that saving increases by less than the increase in income. The slope of the saving line provides the foundation for the slope of the leakages line used in the injections-leakages model. It thus also affects the magnitude of the multiplier process.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time searching for rummage sales looking to buy either a set of serrated steak knives, with durable plastic handles or a pair of blue silicon oven mitts. Be on the lookout for the happiest person in the room.
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Junk bonds are so called because they have a better than 50% chance of default, carrying a Standard & Poor's rating of CC or lower.
"How wonderful it is that nobody need wait a single moment before starting to improve the world."

-- Anne Frank

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