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December 14, 2018 

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DOMINANT FIRM: A term employed in industrial organization to describe a firm that is a price maker and faces little competition from smaller price taking firms, called fringe firms. A firm can become a dominant firm because it has lower costs than fringe firms, because they have a superior differentiated product in the market or because a group of firms collectively act as a single firm. A dominant firm usually has a large market share.

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SHORT-RUN SUPPLY CURVE: For a perfectly competitive firm, the marginal cost curve that lies above the average variable cost curve. This segment of the marginal cost guides a perfectly competitive firm's profit maximizing production as it equates price to marginal cost. Because the marginal cost curve is positively sloped (due to the law of diminishing marginal returns), each firm's supply curve and the market supply curve are also positively sloped. The law of diminishing marginal returns thus provides an explanation for the law of supply. However, this only works for firms with NO market control. Monopoly, monopolistic competition, and oligopoly, with market control, do not achieve the same result.

     See also | short run | supply curve | perfect competition | marginal cost curve | average variable cost curve | profit maximization | price | marginal cost | law of diminishing marginal returns | law of supply | market control | short-run supply curve, monopoly | short-run supply curve, monopolistic competition |


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BANK RESERVES

Assets used by banks to back up deposits and to conduct daily transactions, including withdrawing funds, "cashing" checks, and transferring funds between banks to "clear" checks. Reserves, also termed bank reserves or legal reserves, includes two types of assets: vault cash and Federal Reserve deposits. These legal reserves are then divided between require reserves and excess reserves. Required reserves are used to back up deposits and excess reserves are used for loans.

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