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March 30, 2017 

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INCOME DISTRIBUTION: The manner in which income is divided among the members of the economy. A perfectly equal income distribution would mean everyone in the country has exactly the same income. The income distribution in the good old U. S. of A., while more equal than most nations of the world, is far from perfectly equal. A certain amount of inequality in the income distribution is to be expected because resources are never equally distributed. Some labor is naturally going to be more productive--better able to produce the stuff that consumers want--and thus get more income. The same is true for capital, land, entrepreneurship. However, without government intervention, an unequal distribution of income tends to perpetuate itself. Those who have more income, can invest in additional productive resources, and thus can add even more to their income.

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VOLUNTARY EXCHANGE: The process of willingly trading one item for another. The emphasis here is on "willingly." Voluntary exchanges are the heart and soul of market transactions, and should be contrasted with the "involuntary" exchanges mandated by government taxes, laws, and regulations. While involuntary government-forced exchanges play an important role in a mixed economy, economists really, really like voluntary market exchanges because they promote economic efficiency.

     See also | exchange | market | price | involuntary exchange | government | taxes | regulation | government functions | mixed economy |


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VOLUNTARY EXCHANGE, AmosWEB GLOSS*arama, http://www.AmosWEB.com, AmosWEB LLC, 2000-2017. [Accessed: March 30, 2017].


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CONSTRAINED UTILITY MAXIMIZATION

The process of obtaining the highest possible level of utility from the consumption of goods or services, under given restrictions, when the highest overall level of utility cannot be reached. The notion of constrained utility maximization is a modification of the more general utility maximization assumption. It is based on the recognition that consumers might be restricted from achieving the absolute maximum level of utility. The primary restrictions tend to be the amount of income available relative to price paid. Constrained utility maximization generally does reach the peak of the total utility curve.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time searching for a specialty store seeking to buy either a microwave over that won't burn your popcorn or a T-shirt commemorating the first day of winter. Be on the lookout for rusty deck screws.
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