Google
Saturday 
June 25, 2016 

AmosWEB means Economics with a Touch of Whimsy!

AmosWEBWEB*pediaGLOSS*aramaECON*worldCLASS*portalQUIZ*tasticPED GuideXtra CrediteTutorA*PLS
Today's Index
Yesterday's Index
192.9

Help us compile the AmosWEB Free Lunch Index. Tell us about your last lunch.

Skipped lunch altogether.
Bought by another.
Ate lunch at home.
Brought lunch from home.
Fast food drive through.
Fast food dine in.
All-you-can eat buffet.
Casual dining with tip.
Fancy upscale with tip.

More About the Index
A guy walks into a bar...?

...boy are my arms tired.
...why the long face?
...she sits around the house.
...that's not a duck.
...to get to the other side.
...that's what see said.

LONG-RUN MARGINAL COST: The change in the long-run total cost of producing a good or service resulting from a change in the quantity of output produced. Like all marginals, long-run marginal cost is the increment in the corresponding total. What's most notable about long-run marginal cost, however, is that we are operating in the long run. Unlike the short run, in which at least one input is fixed, there are no fixed inputs in the long run. As such, there is only variable cost. This means that long-run marginal cost is the result of changes in the cost of all inputs.

Visit the GLOSS*arama


PERFECTLY ELASTIC:

An elasticity alternative in which infinitesimally small changes in one variable (usually price) cause infinitely large changes in another variable (usually quantity). Quantity is infinitely responsive to price. Any change in price, no matter how small, triggers an infinite change in quantity. This characterization of elasticity is most important for the price elasticity of demand and the price elasticity of supply. Perfectly elastic is one of five elasticity alternatives. The other four are perfectly inelastic, relatively elastic, relatively inelastic, and unit elastic.
AlternativeCoefficient (E)
Perfectly ElasticE = ∞
Relatively Elastic1 < E < ∞
Unit ElasticE = 1
Relatively Inelastic0 < E < 1
Perfectly InelasticE = 0
Perfectly elastic means an infinitesimally small change in price results in an infinitely large change in quantity demanded or supplied. This elasticity alternative exists when the price is fixed, that is, an infinite range of quantities is associated with the same price. Perfectly elastic demand can occur, in theory, when buyers have the choice among a large number of perfect substitutes in the consumption of a good. In an analogous way, perfectly elastic supply can occur when sellers have the choice among a large number of perfect substitutes in the production.

The chart to the right displays the five alternatives based on the coefficient of elasticity (E). In technical shorthand (often used by economists who have really tiny fingers), the coefficient of elasticity (E) is given as:

E = ∞

This technical shorthand works for both the price elasticity of demand and the price elasticity of supply, because the negative value of the price elasticity of demand is ignored. If the negative sign is not ignored, then the price elasticity of demand is given by E = -∞.

Two Curves

Perfectly Elastic Curves

Perfectly elastic demand and supply are best understood and more easily seen with pictures. The blank graph presented here is ready and willing to display a perfectly elastic demand curve and a perfectly elastic supply curve. All that is needed is a click of the corresponding buttons labeled "Demand" and "Supply."

Both of the curves revealed by the button-clicking are horizontal, perfectly horizontal, with absolutely no slope. They are perfectly flat. This is THE hallmark characteristic of perfectly elastic. Being perfectly horizontal means that, for a given price, buyers buy or sellers sell any quantity. The focus, in other words, of a perfectly elastic curve is on price not quantity. If the price should change by an infinitesimally small amount, then quantity explodes to an infinitely large amount or drops to zero.

How about a couple of examples to illustrate perfectly elastic demand and perfectly elastic supply? However, before providing examples, note that use of the word "perfectly" means that the perfectly elastic alternative is an ideal, theoretical extreme that does NOT actually exist in the real world. As such, the hypothetical, fabricated examples provided here are intended only to illustrate.

Demand

The key for perfectly elastic demand is that the good has a large number of very, very, very close (that is, perfect) substitutes-in-consumption readily available. One hypothetical example is paper clips produced by the Quad D company. These are standard, run-of-the-mill, nothing fancy, metal paper clips, just like those offered by hundreds of companies. A Quad D paper clip is indistinguishable from any other paper clip made by any other company.

As such, the demand for Quad D paper clips is perfectly elastic. The Quad D company sells all of the paper clips that it wants at a specific price. If Quad D lowers the price of its paper clips by an infinitesimally small amount, then an infinite number of buyers who might have bought the other paper clips buy Quad D paper clips instead. If Quad D should raise the price of its paper clips by an infinitesimally small amount, then buyers buy paper clips made by other companies. Of course, they have no reason to raise their price because they can sell all that they want at the existing price.

Supply

The key for perfectly elastic supply is that the good has a large number of very, very, very close (as in perfect) substitutes-in-production readily available. Any quantity of the good can be produced at the same production cost and price because the productive resources can be easily (as in perfectly) switched back and forth between other goods. A hypothetical example of perfectly elastic supply comes with a generic cheese sandwich, such as that sold by Manny Mustard and thousands of others. The production cost of combining labor, kitchen utensils, mayonnaise, cheese, and bread are one dollar per sandwich. This cost is the same for one sandwich or one billion sandwiches. There is no increasing opportunity cost. There are no economies of scale.

As such, the supply of generic cheese sandwiches is perfectly elastic. If buyers pay a buck each, one dollar, they get as many generic cheese sandwiches as they want. If buyers should lower the price they offer for generic cheese sandwiches by an infinitesimally small amount, then sellers do not supply any generic cheese sandwiches. If buyers should raise the price they offer for generic cheese sandwiches by an infinitesimally small amount, then sellers supply an infinitely large amount. Of course, buyers have no reason to offer a lower price because they can buy all that they want at the existing price.

<= PERFECT COMPETITION, TOTAL ANALYSISPERFECTLY INELASTIC =>


Recommended Citation:

PERFECTLY ELASTIC, AmosWEB Encyclonomic WEB*pedia, http://www.AmosWEB.com, AmosWEB LLC, 2000-2016. [Accessed: June 25, 2016].


Check Out These Related Terms...

     | perfectly inelastic | relatively elastic | relatively inelastic | unit elastic | elasticity alternatives | elasticity alternatives, demand | elasticity alternatives, supply | elastic | elastic demand | elastic supply |


Or For A Little Background...

     | elasticity | coefficient of elasticity | price elasticity of demand | supply | law of demand | demand curve | price elasticity of supply | supply | law of supply | supply curve |


And For Further Study...

     | elasticity and demand slope | elasticity and supply intercept | demand elasticity and total expenditure | price elasticity of demand | income elasticity of demand | cross elasticity of demand | elasticity determinants |


Search Again?

Back to the WEB*pedia


APLS

State of the ECONOMY

Real Average Hourly Earnings
November 2015
$10.60
Up $.01 from October 2015

More Stats

BLUE PLACIDOLA
[What's This?]

Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time at a crowded estate auction looking to buy either decorative picture frames or storage boxes for your income tax returns. Be on the lookout for the happiest person in the room.
Your Complete Scope

This isn't me! What am I?

During the American Revolution, the price of corn rose 10,000 percent, the price of wheat 14,000 percent, the price of flour 15,000 percent, and the price of beef 33,000 percent.
"You can't use up creativity. The more you use, the more you have. "

-- Maya Angelou, poet

VAT
Value Added Tax
A PEDestrian's Guide
Xtra Credit
Tell us what you think about AmosWEB. Like what you see? Have suggestions for improvements? Let us know. Click the User Feedback link.

User Feedback



| AmosWEB | WEB*pedia | GLOSS*arama | ECON*world | CLASS*portal | QUIZ*tastic | PED Guide | Xtra Credit | eTutor | A*PLS |
| About Us | Terms of Use | Privacy Statement |

Thanks for visiting AmosWEB
Copyright ©2000-2016 AmosWEB*LLC
Send comments or questions to: WebMaster