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RISK POOLING: Combining the uncertainty of individuals into a calculable risk for large groups. For example, you may or may not contract the flu this year. However, if you're thrown in with 99,999 other people, then health-care types who spend their lives measuring the odds of an illness, can predict that 1 percent of the group, or 1,000 people, will get the flu. The uncertainty is that they probably don't know which 1,000 people, they only know the number afflicted. This little bit of information is what makes risk pooling possible. If the cost is $50 per illness, then an insurance company can insure your 100,000-member group against flu if they collect $50,000 ($50 x 1,000 sick people), or 50 cents per person. By agreeing to pay the cost of each sick person in exchange for the 50 cent payments, the insurance company has effectively pooled the risk of the group.

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GOVERNMENT PURCHASES DETERMINANTS: Ceteris paribus factors, other than aggregate income or production, that are held constant when the government purchases line is constructed and which cause the government purchases line to shift when they change. Some of the more important government purchases determinants are fiscal policy and politics.

     See also | government purchases line | aggregate expenditures determinants | consumption expenditures determinants | investment expenditures determinants | net exports determinants | slope, government purchases line | intercept, government purchases line | induced government purchases | autonomous government purchases | induced expenditures | autonomous expenditures | government expenditures | government purchases | Keynesian economics | macroeconomics | government sector | national income | gross domestic product | determinants | business cycles | circular flow | interest rates, aggregate expenditures determinant | financial wealth, aggregate expenditures determinant | physical wealth, aggregate expenditures determinant | consumer confidence, aggregate expenditures determinant | inflationary expectations, aggregate expenditures determinant | federal deficit, aggregate expenditures determinant | exchange rates, aggregate expenditures determinant | technology, aggregate expenditures determinant | Keynesian model | Keynesian equilibrium | injections-leakages model | aggregate demand | aggregate demand determinants | fiscal policy | multiplier |


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GOVERNMENT PURCHASES DETERMINANTS, AmosWEB GLOSS*arama, http://www.AmosWEB.com, AmosWEB LLC, 2000-2024. [Accessed: April 23, 2024].


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KINKED-DEMAND CURVE ANALYSIS

An analysis using the kinked-demand curve to explain rigid prices often found with oligopoly. The kinked-demand curve contains two distinct segments--one for higher prices that is more elastic and one for lower prices that is less elastic. Key to this analysis is that the corresponding marginal revenue curve contains three segments--one associated with the more elastic segment, one associated with the less elastic segment, and one associated with the kink. A profit-maximizing firm can then equate marginal cost to a wide range of marginal revenue values along the vertical segment of the marginal revenue curve. This suggests that marginal cost must change significantly before an oligopolistic firm is inclined to change price.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time waiting for visits from door-to-door solicitors seeking to buy either a birthday greeting card for your grandmother or a coffee cup commemorating yesterday. Be on the lookout for empty parking spaces that appear to be near the entrance to a store.
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The first paper notes printed in the United States were in denominations of 1 cent, 5 cents, 25 cents, and 50 cents.
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