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December 9, 2018 

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PERSONAL INCOME AND DISPOSABLE INCOME: Personal income (PI) is the total income received by the members of the domestic household sector, which may or may not be earned from productive activities during a given period of time, usually one year. Disposable income (DI) is the total income that can be used by the household sector for either consumption or saving during a given period of time, usually one year. Disposable income is after-tax income that is officially calculated as the difference between personal income and personal tax and nontax payments. In the numbers game, personal tax and nontax payments are about 15% of personal income, which makes disposable personal income about 85% of personal income.

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COMPLEMENT-IN-PRODUCTION:

One of two (or more) goods that are simultaneously produced using a given resource. A complement-in-production is one of two alternatives falling within the other prices determinant of supply. The other is a substitute-in-production. An increase in the price of one complement good causes an increase in supply for the other.
Complements-in-production are two or more goods that are jointly produced using a given resource. The production of one good automatically triggers the production of another, often as a bi-product. Both goods are simultaneously produced from the same resource. The production of one good does not exclude the production of the other, as would be the case for substitutes-in-production. In fact, it promotes the production of the other. Produce one, produce both.

Agricultural producers frequently generate bi-products when they produce a primary good, such as wheat and hay. Cattle ranchers produce both beef and leather from the same cattle resource. Lumber mills use timber resources to the produce two-by-fours and sawdust.

The price of a complement-in-production is part of the other prices supply determinant. A change in the price of a complement-in-production causes a change in supply and a shift of the supply curve. An increase in the price of one complement good causes an increase in the supply of the other. A decrease in the price of one complement good causes a decrease in the supply of the other.

Shifting the Supply Curve

To illustrate this process consider the simultaneous production of two goods--beef and leather. Each is jointly produced using the same cattle resources. When producers produce one, they produce both.

Complement-in-Production
Leather


How is the supply of leather affected if the price of beef should change?

  • A Higher Price: Suppose the price of beef increases. Profit-minded cattle ranchers undoubtedly react according to the law of supply and increase the quantity supplied of beef. However, in that this generates leather as a bi-product, more leather is automatically produced. The result is an increase in the supply of leather and a rightward shift of the supply curve. Click the [Price Increase] button to demonstrate.

  • A Lower Price: Suppose the price of beef decreases. Profit-minded cattle ranchers also likely react according to the law of supply and decrease the quantity supplied of beef. However, now there is less leather generated as a bi-product, with less leather automatically produced. The result is a decrease in the supply of leather and a leftward shift of the supply curve. Click the [Price Decrease] button to demonstrate.

<= COMPLEMENT-IN-CONSUMPTIONCOMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY =>


Recommended Citation:

COMPLEMENT-IN-PRODUCTION, AmosWEB Encyclonomic WEB*pedia, http://www.AmosWEB.com, AmosWEB LLC, 2000-2018. [Accessed: December 9, 2018].


Check Out These Related Terms...

     | substitute-in-production | complement good | substitute good | substitute-in-consumption | complement-in-consumption | other prices, supply determinant | supply determinants |


Or For A Little Background...

     | supply | market supply | supply price | quantity supplied | law of supply | supply curve | change in supply | change in quantity supplied | ceteris paribus |


And For Further Study...

     | market | Marshallian cross | comparative statics | competition | competitive market | producer surplus | other prices, demand determinant | demand determinants |


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