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January 23, 2018 

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ABILITY-TO-PAY PRINCIPLE: A principle of taxation in which taxes are based on the income or resource-ownership ability of people to pay the tax. The income tax collected by our friends at the Internal Revenue Service is one of the most common taxes that seeks to abide by the ability-to-pay principle. In theory, the income tax system is set up such that people with greater incomes pay more taxes. Proportional and progressive taxes follow this ability-to-pay principle, while regressive taxes, such as sales taxes and Social Security taxes, don't.

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DEMAND SCHEDULE:

A table that illustrates the alternative quantities of a commodity demanded at different prices. A demand schedule is a simple means of summarizing information about demand price and quantity demanded for a particular good. It is used to highlight the law of demand. It can also be used to derive a demand curve.
A demand schedule is a useful set of information that can summarize several of the more important aspects of demand.

Setting Up the Table

The table in this exhibit displays the Shady Valley demand schedule for stuffed Yellow Tarantulas, a cute and cuddly stuffed creature from the Wacky Willy Stuffed Amigos line of collectibles.

This table contains three columns. The first contains reference labels A, B, C, etc. for each price-quantity pair. The second is the demand price, ranging from $5 to $50. And the third is the quantity demanded, ranging from 0 to 90 Yellow Tarantulas. This schedule assumes other ceteris paribus factors remain unchanged and that the quantities are those demanded during a one year time period.

Running Through the Numbers

Here are a few observations about this demand schedule.
  • First, as the price increases from a low of $5 to a high of $50, the quantity demanded of Yellow Tarantulas decreases from 90 to 0. Lower prices are related to larger quantities. This relation, this inverse relation between demand price and quantity demanded, IS the basic law of demand.

  • Second, the numbers in the schedule represent maximum values. That is, if the price is $5, then the maximum quantity demanded is 90 Yellow Tarantulas. It is not 150, nor even 91, but only 90. Alternatively, if buyers purchase 90 Yellow Tarantulas, then the maximum demand price they are willing and able to pay is $5, not $6, not even $5.01, but only $5.

  • Third, this whole schedule, all ten pairs of the price-quantity numbers (and all others that could be included) is demand. Demand is the entire range of prices and quantities, all pairs. In contrast, quantity demanded is any specific number of Yellow Tarantulas that buyers are willing and able to buy at a specific demand price. Selecting a different price generates a different quantity demanded.

  • Fourth, these numbers are hypothetical, not just in the sense that they were made up to illustrate demand, but in the sense that they suggest a "What if" relation. This particular schedule does not indicate the actual demand price of Yellow Tarantulas nor the actual quantity demanded. It only indicates quantity demanded given demand price, or demand price given the quantity demanded. If, for example, the demand price is $5, then buyers are willing and able to purchase 90 Yellow Tarantulas. This does not mean that buyers have purchased, are purchasing, or ever will purchase 90 Yellow Tarantulas. It only indicates what they would purchase at a $5 price.

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Recommended Citation:

DEMAND SCHEDULE, AmosWEB Encyclonomic WEB*pedia, http://www.AmosWEB.com, AmosWEB LLC, 2000-2018. [Accessed: January 23, 2018].


Check Out These Related Terms...

     | demand price | quantity demanded | law of demand | demand curve | demand space | consumer surplus | demand determinants | change in demand | change in quantity demanded | supply schedule |


Or For A Little Background...

     | demand | market | quantity | price | unlimited wants and needs | economic analysis | exchange | scarcity | good | service | satisfaction |


And For Further Study...

     | market demand | competition | value | consumer sovereignty | competitive market | efficiency | income effect | substitution effect |


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