  Tuesday  December 10, 2019
 AmosWEB means Economics with a Touch of Whimsy! LRAC CURVE: The common abbreviation for the long-run average cost curve, which is a curve depicting the per unit cost of producing a good or service in the long run when all inputs are variable. The long-run average cost curve can be derived in two ways. On is to plot long-run average cost, which is, long-run total cost divided by the quantity of output produced. at different output levels. The more common method, however, is as an envelope of an infinite number of short-run average total cost curves. Such an envelope is base on identifying the point on each short-run average total cost curve that provides the lowest possible average cost for each quantity of output. The long-run average cost curve is U-shaped, reflecting economies of scale (or increasing returns to scale) when negatively-sloped and diseconomies of scale (or decreasing returns to scale) when positively sloped. The minimum point (or range) on the LRAC curve is the minimum efficient scale.                              INELASTIC:

The general relation between two variables in which relatively large changes in one variable (A) cause relatively small changes in another variable (B). In other words, large changes in variable A cause relatively small changes in variable B or the percentage change in variable B is smaller than the percentage change in variable A. This characterization of elasticity is most important for the price elasticity of demand and the price elasticity of supply. Inelastic is one of two general elasticity relations between two variables. The other is elastic.
An inelastic relation between two variables is NOT a very responsive, or stretchable, relation. The inelastic relation is most often directed toward demand and supply in terms of the price elasticity of demand and the price elasticity of supply. In this context, demand or supply is said to be inelastic if the percentage change in quantity is smaller than the percentage change in price. This means that buyers or sellers are not responsive to price changes.

However, other relations can also be thought of as inelastic. For example, demand might be inelastic relative to income. In this case, relative large changes in income are needed to trigger relatively small changes in demand.

### Demand and Supply

Consider the two sides of the market.
• Demand: Inelastic demand exists if relatively large changes in price cause relatively small changes in quantity demanded. Inelastic demand means that changes in the quantity demanded are not very responsive to changes in the price. An inelastic demand has a coefficient of elasticity less than one (with the negative value ignored).

• Supply: Inelastic supply exists if relatively large changes in price cause relatively small changes in quantity supplied. Inelastic supply means that changes in the quantity supplied are not very responsive to changes in the price. An inelastic supply also has a coefficient of elasticity less than one.

### Perfect and Relative

An inelastic relation can fall into one of two categories--perfectly inelastic and relatively inelastic.
• Perfectly Inelastic: Perfectly inelastic means that quantity demanded or supplied is unaffected by any change in price. In other words, the quantity is essentially fixed. It does not matter how much price changes, quantity does not budge. Perfectly inelastic demand occurs when buyers have no choice in the consumption of a good. In an analogous way, perfectly inelastic supply occurs when producers have no choice of the resources used in the production of a good.

• Relatively Inelastic: Relatively inelastic means that relatively large changes in price cause relatively small changes in quantity. In other words, quantity is not very responsive to price, but it does change. More specifically, the percentage change in quantity is less than the percentage change in price. Relatively inelastic demand occurs when buyers can choose only among a small number of imperfect substitutes-in-consumption. In an analogous way, relatively inelastic supply occurs when producers are able to switch resources among a small number of imperfect substitutes-in-production.

 <= INEFFICIENT INELASTIC DEMAND => Recommended Citation:

INELASTIC, AmosWEB Encyclonomic WEB*pedia, http://www.AmosWEB.com, AmosWEB LLC, 2000-2019. [Accessed: December 10, 2019].

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