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AFC: The abbreviation for average fixed cost, which is fixed cost per unit of output, found by dividing total fixed cost by the quantity of output. Average fixed cost is one of three related cost averages. The other two are average variable cost and avarage total cost. Average fixed cost decreases with larger quantities of output. Because fixed cost is FIXED and does not change with the quantity of output, a given cost is spread more thinly per unit as quantity increases. A thousand dollars of fixed cost averages out to $10 per unit if only 100 units are produced. But if 10,000 units are produced, then the average shrinks to a mere 10 cents per unit.

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RATIONING: The distribution or allocation of a limited commodity, usually accomplished based on a standard or criterion. The two primary methods of rationing are markets and governments. Rationing is needed due to the scarcity problem. Because wants and needs are unlimited, but resources are limited, available commodities must be rationed out to competing uses.

     See also | price rationing | resource allocation | voluntary exchange | involuntary exchange | government | regulation | equity | incentive | exchange | market | price | government functions | distribution standards | allocative efficiency | shortage | auctions | ownership and control | price ceiling |


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RATIONING, AmosWEB GLOSS*arama, http://www.AmosWEB.com, AmosWEB LLC, 2000-2021. [Accessed: December 3, 2021].


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VOLUNTARY EXCHANGE

The process of willingly trading one valuable commodity (good, service, or resource) for another. The key term is "willingly," which distinguishes voluntary exchanges from involuntary exchanges, such as those created by government taxes. Voluntary exchanges are the foundation of market transactions.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time at a garage sale seeking to buy either a birthday greeting card for your grandmother or a coffee cup commemorating yesterday. Be on the lookout for florescent light bulbs that hum folk songs from the sixties.
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The Dow Jones family of stock market price indexes began with a simple average of 11 stock prices in 1884.
"If a man hasn't discovered something that he will die for, he isn't fit to live. "

-- Martin Luther King Jr., clergyman

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