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OUTPUT GAPS: Recessionary and inflationary gaps created by differences between equilibrium real production achieved in the short-run aggregate market and full-employment real production. A recessionary gap occurs if short-run equilibrium real production is less than full-employment real production. An inflationary gap results if short-run real equilibrium production is greater than full-employment real production.

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Lesson Contents
Unit 1: What It Is
  • Banking
  • Intermediary
  • Unit 1 Summary
  • Unit 2: Banking Details
  • Types
  • Commercial Banks
  • S&Ls
  • Credit Unions
  • Savings Banks
  • Balance Sheet
  • Unit 2 Summary
  • Unit 3: Reserve Banking
  • Reserves
  • Legal, Required, and Excess Reserves
  • Goldsmith
  • Goldsmith Deposits
  • Goldsmith Loans
  • Goldsmith Reserves
  • Unit 3 Summary
  • Unit 4: Regulating Banks
  • Why?
  • Who?
  • How?
  • Unit 4 Summary
  • Unit 5: The Economy
  • Benefits
  • Problems
  • Unit 5 Summary
  • Course Home
    Banking

    In this lesson, we take a look at the role banking plays in the macroeconomy. Banking is most important to the study of macroeconomics because a substantial fraction of the economy's money supply is under the direct control of commercial banks (as opposed to government). Because government needs to control the money supply to promote business-cycle stability, they need to control banks control of the money supply. As such, we need to take a look at how banks operate, including how they issue the deposits that make up the money supply.

    • The first unit opens this lesson with an overview of banks and the banking system, including their role as financial intermediaries.
    • Moving into the second unit, we take a closer look at the banking system, especially the four basic types of banks (banks, savings and loans, credit unions, and mutual savings banks) and the assorted assets and liabilities of a typical bank.
    • The key banking principle -- fractional-reserve banking -- is then discussed in the third unit with a little story about Fred the Goldsmith.
    • The fourth unit of this lesson discusses the why, how, and who of bank regulation.
    • The fifth and final unit then examines the benefits and problems of fractional-reserve banking for the macroeconomy.

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    AGGREGATE SUPPLY DECREASE, SHORT-RUN AGGREGATE MARKET

    A shock to the short-run aggregate market caused by a decrease in aggregate supply, resulting in and illustrated by a leftward shift of the short-run aggregate supply curve. A decrease in aggregate supply in the short-run aggregate market results in an increase in the price level and a decrease in real production. The level of real production resulting from the shock can be greater or less than full-employment real production.

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    ORANGE REBELOON
    [What's This?]

    Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time watching the shopping channel looking to buy either a birthday greeting card for your aunt or a wall poster commemorating the moon landing. Be on the lookout for high interest rates.
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    Ragnar Frisch and Jan Tinbergen were the 1st Nobel Prize winners in Economics in 1969.
    "I much prefer the sharpest criticism of a single intelligent man to the thoughtless approval of the masses."

    -- Johannes Kepler, German Astronomer

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