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June 23, 2018 

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AD-AS MODEL: An economic model relating the price level and real production that is used to analyze business cycles, gross domestic product, unemployment, inflation, stabilization policies, and related macroeconomic phenomena. The AS-AD model, inspired by the standard market model, captures the interaction between aggregate demand (the buyers) and short-run and long-run aggregate supply (the sellers).

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Lesson Contents
Unit 1: What It Is
  • Banking
  • Intermediary
  • Unit 1 Summary
  • Unit 2: Banking Details
  • Types
  • Commercial Banks
  • S&Ls
  • Credit Unions
  • Savings Banks
  • Balance Sheet
  • Unit 2 Summary
  • Unit 3: Reserve Banking
  • Reserves
  • Legal, Required, and Excess Reserves
  • Goldsmith
  • Goldsmith Deposits
  • Goldsmith Loans
  • Goldsmith Reserves
  • Unit 3 Summary
  • Unit 4: Regulating Banks
  • Why?
  • Who?
  • How?
  • Unit 4 Summary
  • Unit 5: The Economy
  • Benefits
  • Problems
  • Unit 5 Summary
  • Course Home
    Banking

    In this lesson, we take a look at the role banking plays in the macroeconomy. Banking is most important to the study of macroeconomics because a substantial fraction of the economy's money supply is under the direct control of commercial banks (as opposed to government). Because government needs to control the money supply to promote business-cycle stability, they need to control banks control of the money supply. As such, we need to take a look at how banks operate, including how they issue the deposits that make up the money supply.

    • The first unit opens this lesson with an overview of banks and the banking system, including their role as financial intermediaries.
    • Moving into the second unit, we take a closer look at the banking system, especially the four basic types of banks (banks, savings and loans, credit unions, and mutual savings banks) and the assorted assets and liabilities of a typical bank.
    • The key banking principle -- fractional-reserve banking -- is then discussed in the third unit with a little story about Fred the Goldsmith.
    • The fourth unit of this lesson discusses the why, how, and who of bank regulation.
    • The fifth and final unit then examines the benefits and problems of fractional-reserve banking for the macroeconomy.

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    IMPLICIT LOGROLLING

    The trading of votes to ensure a favorable outcome for two or more separate decisions undertaken by combined both decisions into a single vote. Commonly practiced in legislative bodies, implicit logrolling occurs when two separate programs or policies are combined into a single package, which is then subject to a single vote. The contrast is with explicit logrolling in which each of two voters agree to cast separate votes for two separate programs. Whether implicit or explicit, logrolling is generally used when neither decision is able to obtain the necessary majority of the votes needed for passage on their own accord.

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    APLS

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    Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time waiting for visits from door-to-door solicitors hoping to buy either a small palm tree that will fit on your coffee table or several magazines on fashion design. Be on the lookout for fairy dust that tastes like salt.
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    Post WWI induced hyperinflation in German in the early 1900s raised prices by 726 million times from 1918 to 1923.
    "The majority of men meet with failure because of their lack of persistence in creating new plans to take the place of those that fail. "

    -- Napoleon Hill, author

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