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January 17, 2018 

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ADB: An abbreviation that stands for either the African Development Bank the Asian Development Bank. The African Development Bank is a regional multilateral development institution engaged in promoting the economic development and social progress of its member countries in Africa. The Bank, established in 1964, started functioning in 1966 with its Headquarters in Abidjan, Cote d' lvoire. The Bank borrows funds from the international money and capital markets. Its shareholders are the 53 countries in Africa as well as 24 countries in the Americas, Europe, and Asia. The Asian Development Bank is a multilateral development finance institution dedicated to reducing poverty in Asia and the Pacific that engages in mostly public sector lending for development purposes in its developing member countries. They pursue this goal by helping to improve the quality of people's lives providing loans and technical assistance for a broad range of development activities. ADB raises fund through bond issues on the world's capital markets but they also rely on members' contributions. The ADB was established in 1966 and has its headquarters in Manila, Philippines. As of September of 2003, the ADB had 58 member countries.

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Lesson Contents
Unit 1: What It Is
  • Banking
  • Intermediary
  • Unit 1 Summary
  • Unit 2: Banking Details
  • Types
  • Commercial Banks
  • S&Ls
  • Credit Unions
  • Savings Banks
  • Balance Sheet
  • Unit 2 Summary
  • Unit 3: Reserve Banking
  • Reserves
  • Legal, Required, and Excess Reserves
  • Goldsmith
  • Goldsmith Deposits
  • Goldsmith Loans
  • Goldsmith Reserves
  • Unit 3 Summary
  • Unit 4: Regulating Banks
  • Why?
  • Who?
  • How?
  • Unit 4 Summary
  • Unit 5: The Economy
  • Benefits
  • Problems
  • Unit 5 Summary
  • Course Home
    Banking

    In this lesson, we take a look at the role banking plays in the macroeconomy. Banking is most important to the study of macroeconomics because a substantial fraction of the economy's money supply is under the direct control of commercial banks (as opposed to government). Because government needs to control the money supply to promote business-cycle stability, they need to control banks control of the money supply. As such, we need to take a look at how banks operate, including how they issue the deposits that make up the money supply.

    • The first unit opens this lesson with an overview of banks and the banking system, including their role as financial intermediaries.
    • Moving into the second unit, we take a closer look at the banking system, especially the four basic types of banks (banks, savings and loans, credit unions, and mutual savings banks) and the assorted assets and liabilities of a typical bank.
    • The key banking principle -- fractional-reserve banking -- is then discussed in the third unit with a little story about Fred the Goldsmith.
    • The fourth unit of this lesson discusses the why, how, and who of bank regulation.
    • The fifth and final unit then examines the benefits and problems of fractional-reserve banking for the macroeconomy.

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    AGGREGATE EXPENDITURES

    The total expenditures on gross domestic product undertaken in a given time period by the four sectors--household, business, government, and foreign. Expenditures made by each of these sectors are commonly termed consumption expenditures, investment expenditures, government purchases, and net exports. Aggregate expenditures (AE) are a cornerstone in the study of macroeconomics, playing critical roles in Keynesian economics, aggregate market analysis, and to a lesser degree, monetarism. In particular, aggregate expenditures are combined with the price level as aggregate demand.

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    APLS

    BLACK DISMALAPOD
    [What's This?]

    Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time strolling through a department store hoping to buy either an electric coffee pot with automatic shutoff or a brown leather attache case. Be on the lookout for neighborhood pets, especially belligerent parrots.
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    This isn't me! What am I?

    A communal society, a prime component of Karl Marx's communist philosophy, was advocated by the Greek philosophy Plato.
    "Being defeated is only a temporary condition; giving up is what makes it permanent."

    -- Marilyn vos Savant, Author

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    otal Factor Productivity
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