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February 2, 2023 

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DEFAULT RISK: The probability that a borrowing agent will not pay in full the agreed interest and/or principal. A default risk can be assigned to any bond or loan agreement. Of course, there are some instruments considered default-risk-free, that is, instruments for which the probability that a borrowing agent will not pay is zero. The most noted examples are the U.S. Treasury securities, which have virtually no default risk because the U.S. government guarantees that all the principal and interest will be repaid. When calculating the risk premium on financial instruments, investors use default-risk-free instruments for comparison.

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BARRIER TO ENTRY: An institutional, government, technological, or economic restriction on the entry of firms into a market or industry. The four primary barriers to entry are: resource ownership, patents and copyrights, government restrictions, and start-up costs. Barriers to entry are a key reason for market control and the inefficiency that this generates. In particular, monopoly, oligopoly, monopsony, and oligopsony often owe their market control to assorted barriers to entry. By way of contrast, perfect competition, monopolistic competition, and monopsonistic competition have few if any barriers to entry and thus little or no market control.

     See also | institution | government | technology | firm | market | market control | inefficiency | monopoly | monopsony | oligopsony | perfect competition | monopolistic competition | monopsonistic competition |


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OLIGOPSONY

A market characterized by a small number of large buyers controlling the buying-side of a market. Oligopsony is the buying-side equivalent of a selling-side oligopoly. Much as a oligopoly is a market dominated by a few large sellers, oligopsony is a market dominated by a few large buyers. While oligopsony could be analyzed for any type of market it tends to be most relevant for factor markets in which a handful of firms control the buying of a factor. Two related buying side market structures are monopsony and monopsonistic competition.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time wandering around the downtown area hoping to buy either a how-to book on home repairs or a large, stuffed kitty cat. Be on the lookout for vindictive digital clocks with revenge on their minds.
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