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April 22, 2018 

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COLLUSION AND EFFICIENCY: Colluding oligopolistic firms generally produce less output and charge a higher price than would be the case for a perfectly competitive industry. In essence, colluding oligopolistic firms function just as if a market were monopolized. The price charged by the colluding firms is higher than the marginal cost of production. The equality between price and marginal cost is THE key indication that resources are allocated efficiently and that society's resources are being used to generate the highest possible level of satisfaction. Because the colluding firms control the market like a monopoly, the market demand curve is THE demand curve for the colluding firms's. With a negatively-sloped demand curve, price is greater than marginal revenue. And because a profit-maximizing firm equates marginal revenue with marginal cost, the price charged by the colluding firms when the maximize industry profit is greater than marginal cost.

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REALISM OF PERFECT COMPETITION: Perfect competition is an idealized market structure that does NOT exist in the real world. While some real world industries might come relatively close to a one or two of the four key characteristics of perfect competition, none matches all four sufficiently that we can declare a perfectly competitively industry. Some industries come close on the large number of small firms and the identical product characteristics. A few industries have relatively good, although not perfect, information about prices and technology. However, almost all industries fall far short of the perfect mobility characteristics.

     See also | perfect competition | perfect competition characteristics | information | assumption | efficiency | allocation | monopoly | market control | substitute | natural monopoly | market | imperfect competition | monopolistic competition | oligopoly | price maker | price taker |


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REALISM OF PERFECT COMPETITION, AmosWEB GLOSS*arama, http://www.AmosWEB.com, AmosWEB LLC, 2000-2018. [Accessed: April 22, 2018].


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IMPORT QUOTAS

Quantity restrictions imposed by the government of one nation on imports from other nations. The primary goal of import quotas is to reduce imports and increase domestic production. Because the quantity of imports is restricted, the price of imports increases, which thus encourages domestic consumers to buy more domestic production. Import quotas are one of three common foreign trade policies designed to discourage imports and/or encourage exports. The other two are tariffs and export subsidies.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time at a going out of business sale looking to buy either a hepa filter for your furnace or a wall poster commemorating next Thursday. Be on the lookout for empty parking spaces that appear to be near the entrance to a store.
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