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BALANCE OF PAYMENTS DEFICIT: An imbalance in a nation's balance of payments in which payments made by the country exceed payments received by the country. This is also termed an unfavorable balance of payments. It's considered unfavorable because more currency is flowing out of the country than is flowing in. Such an unequal flow of currency will reduce the supply of money in the nation and subsequently cause an increase in the exchange rate relative to the currencies of other nations. This then has implications for inflation, unemployment, production, and other facets of the domestic economy. A balance of trade deficit is often the source of a balance of payments deficit, but other payments can turn a balance of trade deficit into a balance of payments surplus.

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SUBSTITUTE: In terms of demand (that is, substitute-in-consumption), one of two goods that replace each other in consumption such that an increase in the price of one good leads to an increase in demand and a rightward shift in the demand curve for the other good. If the demand of good 1 increases as the price of good 2 increases, the goods are substitutes-in-consumption. In terms of supply (that is, substitute-in-production), one of two goods that replace each other in either producing using the same resources in an either/or fashion, such that an increase in the price of one good leads to a decrease in supply and a leftward shift in the supply curve for the other good. If the supply of good 1 decreases as the price of good 2 increases, the goods are substitutes-in-production.

     See also | demand | supply | substitute-in-consumption | substitute-in-production | consumption | production | demand curve | supply curve | demand determinants | supply determinants | demand shock | supply shock | comparative statics | elasticity |


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DISTRIBUTION STANDARDS

Alternative criteria for distributing the income generated from the production of goods and services to members of society. These criteria determine how total income is divided up across the economy, effectively answering the For Whom? question of allocation. The three most important distribution criteria are contributive standard, equality standard, and needs standard.

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