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January 20, 2022 

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MARGINAL PRODUCTIVITY THEORY: A theory used to analyze the profit-maximizing quantity of inputs (that is, the services of factor of productions) purchased by a firm in the production of its output. Marginal productivity theory indicates that the demand for a factor of production input is based on the marginal product of the factor and the price of the output produced by the factor.

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SUBSTITUTE: In terms of demand (that is, substitute-in-consumption), one of two goods that replace each other in consumption such that an increase in the price of one good leads to an increase in demand and a rightward shift in the demand curve for the other good. If the demand of good 1 increases as the price of good 2 increases, the goods are substitutes-in-consumption. In terms of supply (that is, substitute-in-production), one of two goods that replace each other in either producing using the same resources in an either/or fashion, such that an increase in the price of one good leads to a decrease in supply and a leftward shift in the supply curve for the other good. If the supply of good 1 decreases as the price of good 2 increases, the goods are substitutes-in-production.

     See also | demand | supply | substitute-in-consumption | substitute-in-production | consumption | production | demand curve | supply curve | demand determinants | supply determinants | demand shock | supply shock | comparative statics | elasticity |


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GOVERNMENT SUBSIDIES

Transfer payments from the government sector to the business sector that do not involve current production. This is one component of the official entry government subsidies less current surplus of government enterprises found in the National Income and Product Accounts maintained by the Bureau of Economic Analysis that separates national income (the resource cost of production) and gross (and net) domestic product (the market value of production).

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time at the confiscated property police auction looking to buy either a pair of red goulashes with shiny buckles or a handcrafted bird feeder. Be on the lookout for letters from the Internal Revenue Service.
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Parker Brothers, the folks who produce the Monopoly board game, prints more Monopoly money each year than real currency printed by the U.S. government.
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