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May 27, 2018 

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UNFAIR LABOR PRACTICE: An activity on the part of employers to discourage legal labor union actions or on the part of labor unions to discourage legal nonunion employee actions. In the never ending battle between labor and management to gain the upper hand in the labor market each side has engaged in practices to thwart the power of the other side. Management commonly undertook what are now termed unfair labor practices in the early stages of the labor union movement to prevent unions from gaining power. Once unions gained power, however, then too engaged in unfair labor practices to keep and enhance that power. Unfair labor practices by management were largely outlawed by the National Labor Relations Act. Unfair labor practices by labor unions were largely outlawed by the Taft-Hartley Act.

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TOTAL COST CURVE:

A curve that graphically represents the relation between the total cost incurred by a firm in the short-run production of a good or service and the quantity produced. The total cost curve is a cornerstone upon which the analysis of short-run production is built. It combines all opportunity cost of production into a single curve, which can then be used with the total revenue curve to determine profit. The marginal cost curve, THE focal point for the analysis of short-run production, is derived directly from the total cost curve. The shape of the curve reflects increasing marginal returns at small quantities of output and decreasing marginal returns at larger quantities.
The total cost curve graphically represents the relation between total cost and the quantity of production. This curve can be derived in two ways. One is to plot a schedule of numbers relating output quantity and total cost. The other is to vertically add the total variable cost curve and the total fixed cost curve. The slope of the total cost curve is marginal cost. When constructing this curve, it is assumed that total cost changes as a result of changes in the quantity of output produced, while other variables like technology and resource prices are held fixed.

Total Cost Curve
Total Cost Curve
The graph at the right is the total cost curve for the short-run production of Wacky Willy Stuffed Amigos (those cute and cuddly lizards, snakes, armadillos and tarantulas). The quantity of Stuffed Amigos production, measured on the horizontal axis, ranges from 0 to 10 and the total cost incurred in the production of Stuffed Amigos, measured on the vertical axis, ranges from $3 to $46.

The most striking feature of the total cost curve is its curvature. The total cost curve emerges from the vertical axis at $3, then twists and turns its way to $46. This curve begins relatively steep, then flattens, before turning increasingly steep once again. It is somewhat reminiscent of the total product curve. The reason is that both curves are guided by the law of diminishing marginal returns.

A scenic trip along this curve reveals that the slope of the total cost curve flattens as the first four Stuffed Amigos are produced. This range of output corresponds with increasing marginal returns found in Stage I of production. Increasing marginal returns is what causes the total cost curve to flatten. Continuing this trip shows that the slope of the total cost curve becomes increasingly steeper after the fourth Stuffed Amigo is produced. Steeper and steeper. This range of output corresponds with decreasing marginal returns, and the extremely important law of diminishing marginal returns, found in Stage II of production. Deceasing marginal returns is what causes the total cost curve to become steeper and steeper and steeper.

The total cost curve is frequently used with a total revenue curve to determine the profit maximizing level of production for a firm. However, this curve is perhaps most important as the basis for deriving the average total cost curve and the marginal cost curve. In particular, marginal cost is the slope of the total cost curve.

<= TOTAL COST AND MARGINAL COSTTOTAL COST CURVES =>


Recommended Citation:

TOTAL COST CURVE, AmosWEB Encyclonomic WEB*pedia, http://www.AmosWEB.com, AmosWEB LLC, 2000-2018. [Accessed: May 27, 2018].


Check Out These Related Terms...

     | variable cost | fixed cost | total cost curve | total variable cost | total variable cost curve | total fixed cost | total fixed cost curve | average cost | average total cost | marginal cost |


Or For A Little Background...

     | opportunity cost | explicit cost | economic cost | cost | production | production cost | business | factors of production | microeconomics | short-run production analysis | law of diminishing marginal returns | marginal returns | marginal analysis | production stages |


And For Further Study...

     | average fixed cost | average variable cost | total cost and marginal cost | total cost curves | total variable cost and total product | legal business organizations | firm objectives | opportunity cost, production possibilities | profit | economic profit | accounting profit | normal profit | accounting cost | profit maximization | long-run total cost | perfect competition, total analysis | monopoly, total analysis |


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