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January 18, 2019 

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ALLOCATION EFFECT: The goal of imposing taxes to change the allocation of resources, that is, to discourage the production, consumption, or exchange or one type of good usually in favor of another. This is one of two reasons that governments impose taxes. The other reason is the revenue effect. Because people would rather not pay taxes, taxes create disincentives to produce, consume, and exchange. If society deems that less of a particular good, such as alcohol, pollution, or cigarettes are "bad," then a tax can reduce its production and consumption, and thus change the allocation of resources.

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DERIVATION, PRODUCTION POSSIBILITIES CURVE: A production possibilities curve, which illustrates the alternative combinations of two goods that an economy can produce with given resources and technology, is often derived from a production possibilities schedule. This derivation involves plotting each bundle from the production possibilities schedule as a point in a diagram measuring the two goods on the vertical and horizontal axes.

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TAX MULTIPLIER

A measure of the change in aggregate production caused by changes in government taxes. The tax multiplier is the negative marginal propensity to consume times one minus the slope of the aggregate expenditures line. The simple tax multiplier includes ONLY induced consumption. More complex tax multipliers include other induced components. Two related multipliers are the expenditures multiplier, which measures the change in aggregate production caused by changes in an autonomous aggregate expenditure, and the balanced-budget multiplier which measures the change in aggregate production from equal changes in both taxes and government purchases.

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The portion of aggregate output U.S. citizens pay in taxes (30%) is less than the other six leading industrialized nations -- Britain, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, or Japan.
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