March 20, 2018 

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AGGREGATE DEMAND: The total (or aggregate) real expenditures on final goods and services produced in the domestic economy that buyers would willing and able to make at different price levels, during a given time period (usually a year). Aggregate demand (AD) is one half of the aggregate market analysis; the other half is aggregate supply. Aggregate demand, relates the economy's price level, measured by the GDP price deflator, and aggregate expenditures on domestic production, measured by real gross domestic product. The aggregate expenditures are consumption, investment, government purchases, and net exports made by the four macroeconomic sectors (household, business, government, and foreign).

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INVESTMENT, PRODUCTION POSSIBILITIES: Investment typically refers to the purchase of productive capital by business in anticipation of increasing production and (presumably) generating more profit. More generally, investment can be considered as sacrificing the current satisfaction of wants and needs (consumption goods) to expand productive capability (capital goods). Production possibilities analysis can be used to illustrate the tradeoff between consumption and capital as a movement along a production possibilities curve.

     See also | economic growth, production possibilities | economic growth, sources | full employment, production possibilities | unemployment, production possibilities | derivation, production possibilities curve | slope, production possibilities curve | opportunity cost, production possibilities | law of increasing opportunity cost | investment | opportunity cost | scarcity | economic growth | production possibilities | production possibilities curve | assumptions, production possibilities | graphical analysis | limited resources | economic efficiency | efficiency | economic goals | seven economic rules | free lunch | three questions of allocation | four estates | government functions | political views | technology | investment expenditures | investment business cycles |

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A tax in which the proportion of income paid in taxes is smaller for higher income levels. A regressive income tax exists if taxpayers with more income pay a lower tax rate relative to income as income increases. A regressive tax is one of three alternations. The other two are progressive tax, in which the proportion of income paid in taxes is greater for higher income levels, and proportional tax, in which the proportion of income paid in taxes is the same for all income levels.

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