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February 24, 2024 

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PERFECT COMPETITION AND SHORT-RUN SUPPLY CURVE: A perfectly competitive firm's supply curve is that portion of its' marginal cost curve that lies above the minimum of the average variable cost curve. A perfectly competitive firm maximizes profit by producing the quantity of output that equates price and marginal cost. As such, the firm moves along it's marginal cost curve in response to alternative prices. Because the marginal cost curve is positively sloped due to the law of diminishing marginal returns, the firm's supply curve is also positively sloped.

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REAL-BALANCE EFFECT: A change in aggregate expenditures on real production made by the household, business, government, and foreign sectors that results because a change in the price level alters the purchasing power of money. This is one of three effects underlying the negative slope of the aggregate demand curve associated with a movement along the aggregate demand curve and a change in aggregate expenditures. The other two are interest-rate effect and net-export effect.

     See also | aggregate demand | aggregate demand curve | slope | aggregate expenditures | price level | money | purchasing power | interest-rate effect | net-export effect | consumption expenditures | investment expenditures | government purchases | net exports |


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GOOD TYPES

The economy produces four distinct types of goods based on two key characteristics -- consumption rivalry and nonpayer excludability. Consumption rivalry arises if consumption of a good by one person prevents another from also consuming. Nonpayer excludability means potential consumers who do not pay for a good can be excluded from consuming. Private goods are rival in consumption and easily subject to the exclusion of nonpayers. Public goods are nonrival in consumption and the exclusion of nonpayers is virtually impossible. Near-public goods are nonrival in consumption and easily subject to exclusion. Common-property goods are rival in consumption and not easily subject to exclusion. Private goods can be efficiently exchanged through markets. Public, near-public and common-property goods cannot, but require some degree of government involvement for efficiency.

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Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time at a crowded estate auction looking to buy either a video game player or an AC adapter that won't fry your computer. Be on the lookout for high interest rates.
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Post WWI induced hyperinflation in German in the early 1900s raised prices by 726 million times from 1918 to 1923.
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