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AGGREGATE MARKET EQUILIBRIUM: The state of equilibrium that exists in the aggregate market when real aggregate expenditures are equal to real production with no imbalances to induce changes in the price level or real production. In other words, the opposing forces of aggregate demand (the buyers) and aggregate supply (the sellers) exactly offset each other. The four macroeconomic sector (household, business, government, and foreign) buyers purchase all of the real production that they seek at the existing price level and business-sector producers sell all of the real production that they have at the existing price level. The aggregate market equilibrium actually comes in two forms: (1) long-run equilibrium, in which all three aggregated markets (product, financial, and resource) are in equilibrium and (2) short-run equilibrium, in which the product and financial markets are in equilibrium, but the resource markets are not.

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PRODUCTION TIME PERIODS: Alternative time periods used to differentiate between variable inputs and fixed inputs that are key to the analysis of short-run production and long-run production by a firm. The two primary time periods are short run and long run. Two secondary periods are very short run (market period) and very long run. Time periods are specified based on the number of inputs that are fixed or variable.

     See also | short run, microeconomics | long run, microeconomics | very short run, microeconomics | very long run, microeconomics | production inputs | fixed input | variable input | production | production cost | variables | labor | capital | law of supply | economic analysis | marginal analysis | factors of production | microeconomics | market | price | quantity supplied | short-run production analysis | long-run production analysis | production function | product | total product | marginal product | average product | law of diminishing marginal returns | marginal returns | production stages | division of labor | production possibilities |


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GAINS FROM TRADE

The combination of consumer surplus and producer surplus obtained by buyers and sellers when engaging in a market exchange. Gains from trade arise because buyers are typically willing and able to pay a higher price to purchase a good than what they end up paying and because sellers are typically willing and able to accept a lower price to sell a good than what they end up receiving. Both sides of the market exchange are thus better off, have a net gain in welfare, by making the trade. While all types of market exchanges generate gains from trade, this topic is perhaps most important for an understanding of international trade.

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