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February 5, 2023 

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INDUCED: The general notion that changes in one variable are related to, or caused by, changes in another variable. Induced relations, especially changes in consumption expenditures are induced by changes in disposable income, are a key aspect of Keynesian economics and the multiplier effect. The alternative to an induced relation between variables is an autonomous relation, in which one variable is not related to another.

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Lesson Contents
Unit 1: Measuring Production
  • An Indicator
  • Total Market Value
  • Final Goods and Services
  • Given Year
  • Unit 1 Summary
  • Unit 2: Looking Behind GDP
  • Ins and Outs
  • Past and Future
  • Estimated Value
  • Home Production
  • Illegal Goods
  • GDP
  • Real GDP
  • Unit 2 Summary
  • Unit 3: Two Views of GDP
  • Demand and Supply
  • Expenditures
  • Resources
  • Unit 3 Summary
  • Unit 4: Measuring Income
  • National Income
  • Personal Income
  • IEBNR
  • IRBNE
  • Unit 4 Summary
  • Unit 5: Issues
  • What It Does
  • What It Doesn't Do
  • Unit 5 Summary
  • Course Home
    Gross Domestic Product

    This lesson investigates one of the most noted and important measures of macroeconomic activity -- gross domestic product (GDP). GDP measures the total production of goods and services that, in principle, are available to satisfy consumers wants and needs. We see the ins and outs of the GDP measure. As a bonus, we also get a close look at several related measures of production and income, including net domestic product (NDP), national income (NI), personal income (PI), and disposable income (PI).

    • In the first unit of this lesson, we take a look at the process of measuring gross domestic product, including what, in principle, is being measure.
    • The second unit the turns to a detailed look at what IS included in GDP and what IS NOT included in the GDP based on the difference between market transactions and economic production.
    • With the third unit we take a look at the two views of measuring GDP -- expenditures and resource costs.
    • Moving on to the fourth unit, we get a look at the three related measures of income -- national income, personal income, and disposable income.
    • And finally, the fifth unit considers a few issues related to measuring GDP, including what BDP does measure and what GDP doesn't measure.

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    INVESTMENT EXPENDITURES

    Expenditures made by the business sector on final goods and services, or gross domestic product, especially the purchase of productive capital goods. Investment expenditures play a central role in macroeconomic activity affecting both short-run business cycles and long-run economic growth. These expenditures reflect the general act of investment involving foregoing current satisfaction to produce capital goods and are officially measured by gross private domestic investment. These are one of four expenditures on gross domestic product. The other three are consumption expenditures, government purchases, and net exports.

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    BLACK DISMALAPOD
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    Today, you are likely to spend a great deal of time wandering around the shopping mall seeking to buy either a country wreathe or galvanized steel storage shelves. Be on the lookout for broken fingernail clippers.
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    NDP
    Net Domestic Product
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