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INCREASING RETURNS TO SCALE: A given proportionate increase in all resources in the long run results in a proportionately greater increase in production. Increasing returns to scale exists if a firm increases ALL resources -- labor, capital, and other inputs -- by 10%, and output increases by more than 10%. You might want to compare decreasing returns to scale and constant returns to scale.

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Lesson Contents
Unit 1: Measuring Production
  • An Indicator
  • Total Market Value
  • Final Goods and Services
  • Given Year
  • Unit 1 Summary
  • Unit 2: Looking Behind GDP
  • Ins and Outs
  • Past and Future
  • Estimated Value
  • Home Production
  • Illegal Goods
  • GDP
  • Real GDP
  • Unit 2 Summary
  • Unit 3: Two Views of GDP
  • Demand and Supply
  • Expenditures
  • Resources
  • Unit 3 Summary
  • Unit 4: Measuring Income
  • National Income
  • Personal Income
  • IEBNR
  • IRBNE
  • Unit 4 Summary
  • Unit 5: Issues
  • What It Does
  • What It Doesn't Do
  • Unit 5 Summary
  • Course Home
    Gross Domestic Product

    This lesson investigates one of the most noted and important measures of macroeconomic activity -- gross domestic product (GDP). GDP measures the total production of goods and services that, in principle, are available to satisfy consumers wants and needs. We see the ins and outs of the GDP measure. As a bonus, we also get a close look at several related measures of production and income, including net domestic product (NDP), national income (NI), personal income (PI), and disposable income (PI).

    • In the first unit of this lesson, we take a look at the process of measuring gross domestic product, including what, in principle, is being measure.
    • The second unit the turns to a detailed look at what IS included in GDP and what IS NOT included in the GDP based on the difference between market transactions and economic production.
    • With the third unit we take a look at the two views of measuring GDP -- expenditures and resource costs.
    • Moving on to the fourth unit, we get a look at the three related measures of income -- national income, personal income, and disposable income.
    • And finally, the fifth unit considers a few issues related to measuring GDP, including what BDP does measure and what GDP doesn't measure.

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    PERSONAL INCOME

    The total income received by the members of the domestic household sector, which may or may not be earned from productive activities during a given period of time, usually one year. Personal income (PI) is one of three measures of income reported in the National Income and Product Accounts maintained by the Bureau of Economic Analysis. The other two are national income (NI) and disposable income (DI). Two related measures of production are gross domestic product (GDP) and net domestic product (NDP). The primary use of personal income is to measure the income actually paid out to the household sector. After adjusting for income taxes, personal income forms the basis for consumption expenditures on gross domestic product.

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